Macron to close elite school that hothouses French leaders

Known as ENA, the grande école has been the hothouse for France’s top civil service and a pathway to power in the public and private sectors. Four French presidents, including Macron, have passed through its doors as have dozens of ministers and business leaders. Founded by Gen Charles de Gaulle in October 1945 with the idea of breaking the upper-class hold over France’s higher echelons, ending nepotism and making the civil service more democratic, it has instead become a byword for an establishment elite that critics have accused it of encouraging groupthink.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/apr/08/macron-close-france-elite-finishing-school-ena-elite-presidents

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